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Creating a Safe Space: Psychological Safety for Injured Workers 

16 Oct, 2023 Claire Muselman

self love 3969644 640

Dr. Claire Muselman  

In today's fast-paced work environment, the concept of psychological safety is making its way to the forefront of organizational well-being. But what happens when an employee faces the vulnerability of a workplace injury? The traditional focus has been on providing medical care and financial support through workers' compensation, but there's another dimension that often goes unnoticed—psychological safety during the claims process. When trust is sparse and stakes are high, how can adjusters create an atmosphere that not only facilitates the nuts and bolts of compensation but also nurtures the emotional and psychological needs of the injured worker? This article delves into how organizations can empower their adjusters to cultivate a psychologically safe space, ensuring that the road to recovery is not just physically healing but emotionally uplifting as well. 

Approach Conflict as a Collaborator 

  1. Trust-Building Conversations: The relationship between a claims adjuster and an injured worker is an integral part of the workers' compensation process. It's not just about monetary compensation or medical treatments; it's also about building a sense of trust and mutual respect. One effective way to achieve this is through trust-building conversations. 

The Initial Contact Sets the Tone 

From the moment an employee files a workers' compensation claim, the claims adjuster has an opportunity to set a positive tone for the entire process. A courteous and empathetic initial conversation can go a long way in easing the employee's worries and fears. By simply acknowledging the employee's situation and expressing a genuine interest in their well-being, an adjuster can make a significant impact. 

The Power of Open-Ended Questions 

One of the most effective ways to build trust is by asking open-ended questions. These are questions that can't be answered with a simple "yes" or "no," encouraging more thoughtful and detailed responses. Questions like, "How can we make this process comfortable for you?" or "What are your main concerns right now?" can open the door for meaningful dialogue.  

When you ask open-ended questions, you show the injured worker that you value their input, which in turn makes them feel heard and respected. This is especially important because many workers feel vulnerable after experiencing an injury. They may be concerned about job security, long-term health impacts, or how they'll support their family during the recovery period. Addressing these concerns in a humane and understanding manner can make a world of difference. 

The Ripple Effect of Trust 

Establishing trust isn't just beneficial for the worker; it can also make the claims adjuster's job easier and more rewarding. When there is trust, workers are more likely to provide complete and accurate information, adhere to prescribed medical treatments, and cooperate during the settlement process. All of this can lead to quicker resolutions and better outcomes for both parties. 

  1. Mutually Beneficial Outcomes: Navigating the intricate pathways of workers' compensation can sometimes feel like a zero-sum game, where one party's gain is another's loss. However, this need not be the case. By striving for mutually beneficial outcomes, claims adjusters can foster an environment where both the injured worker and the organization stand to benefit. 

The Consultative Approach 

Rather than acting as an authoritarian figure, a claims adjuster should adopt a consultative approach. This involves working closely with the injured worker, listening to their concerns, and offering expert guidance to navigate the complexities of the workers' compensation process. The goal here isn't just to resolve the claim quickly, but to find the best possible course of action that meets the needs of all parties involved. 

Building a Collaborative Roadmap 

Consultative conversations often lead to shared decision-making. By involving the injured worker in decisions about medical treatment, job accommodations, or claim settlements, the adjuster empowers them, making the process feel less adversarial. A shared roadmap for recovery could include treatment plans that the worker is comfortable with, timelines that are realistic, and milestones that celebrate progress.  

Transparency and Communication 

For any solution to be mutually beneficial, transparency is crucial. The adjuster should provide clear, understandable explanations about what steps are being taken and why. Regular updates, easy access to claim status, and clarity on medical and legal procedures can further alleviate the worker's anxiety and bolster trust. Transparency not only keeps everyone on the same page but also minimizes misunderstandings that can delay claim resolution. 

Long-Term Benefits for the Organization 

When workers feel that their concerns are being addressed in a fair and equitable manner, they are more likely to be cooperative, which speeds up the claim resolution process. This has several long-term benefits for the organization, including reduced legal costs and a more engaged, loyal workforce. Moreover, a reputation for fair and compassionate handling of workers' compensation claims can make a company more attractive to future employees and partners. 

Human-to-Human Interactions 

  1. Empathy: In the sometimes mechanical world of claims adjustment and workers' compensation, it's easy to lose sight of the fact that we are dealing with human beings—each with their own fears, concerns, and emotional complexities. Amidst the documentation, medical evaluations, and legalities, it's essential to remember the role of empathy in humanizing the process for everyone involved. 

The Emotional Weight of an Injury 

Being injured on the job is not just a physical ordeal but often an emotional one as well. Injured workers might be dealing with an array of feelings, including anxiety about their future, stress over medical bills, or even shame for being unable to work. These are complex emotions that need to be acknowledged, not just for the worker's well-being but for the efficacy of the entire claims process. 

Active Listening: More Than Just Hearing 

An essential element of empathy is active listening. When an adjuster listens attentively, it signals to the worker that their thoughts and feelings are valued. Active listening involves not only hearing the words but understanding the emotions behind them. This can be done through verbal cues ("I understand that this must be tough for you") and non-verbal cues like nodding and maintaining eye contact. The goal is to validate the injured worker's experience genuinely. 

Validation: The Power of Feeling Understood 

One of the most empowering things an adjuster can do is to validate the injured worker's feelings. Validation doesn't necessarily mean agreeing with everything the worker says, but it does mean acknowledging their emotional experience. Simple phrases like, "I can see why you'd feel that way," or "That sounds really challenging," can go a long way in making someone feel understood and less isolated. 

The Long-Term Impact of Empathy 

Empathy doesn't just make the injured worker feel better; it has practical long-term benefits. An empathetic approach can lead to a more open, honest exchange of information, which in turn can result in quicker, more efficient claim resolutions. More importantly, it can set a tone for the company culture, demonstrating that the organization values its employees not just as workers but as human beings. 

  1. Cultural Sensitivity: In an increasingly diverse workforce, cultural sensitivity is not just an optional skill; it's a necessity, especially in the nuanced realm of workers' compensation. A claims adjuster's ability to navigate different cultural perspectives can profoundly impact both the injured worker's experience and the efficacy of the entire compensation process. 

The Complexity of Culture 

Culture is a multifaceted construct that goes beyond ethnicity or nationality; it encompasses values, beliefs, attitudes, and even perspectives on health and well-being. How an individual views injury, work, and compensation can be significantly influenced by their cultural background. For example, some cultures may prioritize holistic or alternative treatments over conventional medical care, while others may have different views on the concept of "work ethic." 

The Need for Cultural Competency Training 

Given this complexity, it's crucial for claims adjusters to undergo cultural competency training. This doesn't mean becoming an expert in every culture but developing the skills to interact respectfully and effectively with people from diverse backgrounds. This training should cover not just communication styles but also an understanding of different cultural attitudes towards work, health, and authority figures. 

Tailoring Your Approach 

An adjuster trained in cultural competency will be more adept at tailoring their approach to meet the unique needs of each individual. For instance, they may need to modify their communication style or make an extra effort to explain certain procedures that might be unfamiliar to the injured worker due to cultural differences. The aim is to foster an environment where every worker feels seen, heard, and respected, irrespective of their cultural background. 

The Benefits of a Culturally Sensitive Approach 

Adopting a culturally sensitive approach has several benefits. It fosters trust, ensures more effective communication, and reduces misunderstandings, all of which are vital for a successful workers' compensation claim. A culturally sensitive approach can also mitigate potential conflicts and legal issues that may arise from cultural misunderstandings.  

Anticipate Reactions and Plan Countermoves 

  1. Scenario Planning: In the unpredictable landscape of workers' compensation, one of the most valuable skills a claims adjuster can possess is the ability to anticipate challenges and navigate them proactively. This is where scenario planning comes into play. By thinking ahead, adjusters can manage expectations, build trust, and pave the way for smoother resolutions. 

The Importance of Forward Thinking 

Claims adjusters deal with various variables that can impact the outcome of a workers' compensation claim—medical complexities, legal issues, and even emotional factors. Scenario planning enables adjusters to prepare for different eventualities and come up with strategies to handle them efficiently. In essence, it's about being one step ahead, always. 

Managing Expectations Through Transparency 

One of the most straightforward yet effective uses of scenario planning is in managing expectations. If an adjuster foresees that a claim might take longer to process due to, say, the need for multiple medical evaluations or legal complications, it's crucial to communicate this transparently to the injured worker. Doing so not only keeps the worker informed but also helps maintain a level of trust that might otherwise erode due to unexpected delays. 

A Proactive Communication Strategy 

Scenario planning should include a well-thought-out communication strategy. For instance, if there's an anticipated delay, the adjuster might schedule periodic updates to keep the worker in the loop. Alternatively, if a particularly sensitive issue might arise—such as the possibility of partial disability—adjusters can prepare to discuss this delicately, perhaps even bringing in counselors or experts to facilitate the conversation. 

The Benefits of Planning Ahead 

While it's impossible to predict every turn a workers' compensation claim might take, scenario planning equips adjusters to handle challenges proactively rather than reactively. This can result in faster claim resolutions and increased satisfaction for the injured worker. Furthermore, proactive planning can save the organization time and resources in the long run by minimizing conflicts, misunderstandings, or the need for legal arbitration. 

  1. Be Prepared, Not Defensive: In the emotionally charged arena of workers' compensation, tensions can escalate quickly. In such moments, the adjuster's ability to maintain composure and guide the conversation constructively becomes critically important. Being prepared, rather than reactive, can make a significant difference in the trajectory of a workers' compensation claim. 

Emotional Intelligence in Claims Adjustment 

Emotional intelligence is an often overlooked but vital skill for claims adjusters. It involves recognizing not just one's own emotions, but also tuning into the emotional states of others. When an injured worker becomes agitated or upset, an emotionally intelligent adjuster will not respond with defensiveness or irritation, but will instead aim to deescalate the situation. 

The Importance of Preparation 

Being prepared means having a set of communication strategies ready to employ when tensions rise. This could involve active listening techniques, pre-prepared statements that are designed to calm, or even a mental checklist of steps to follow when things get heated. Preparation allows the adjuster to remain focused on the bigger picture, which is to resolve the claim efficiently and empathetically. 

Redirecting the Conversation 

When a worker becomes upset, the goal should be to guide the conversation back to a constructive path. This can be done by acknowledging the worker's emotions ("I understand this is a stressful time for you") and then gently steering the dialogue back to the issue at hand ("Let's talk about how we can move forward with your claim"). The focus should always be on problem-solving, not blame-shifting. 

The Power of Non-Defensive Communication 

Responding to agitation with calm, non-defensive communication has several benefits. Firstly, it helps to maintain trust between the adjuster and the injured worker, which is crucial for a successful resolution. Secondly, it serves as a model for constructive dialogue, setting the tone for all future interactions. Lastly, it can expedite the claims process, as issues can be discussed and resolved without the distraction of emotional volatility. 

Replace Blame with Curiosity 

  1. Growth Mindset: In the field of workers' compensation, it's all too easy to slip into a blame-oriented mindset. Whether it's questioning the legitimacy of an injury or faulting a worker for not following procedures, the discourse can quickly turn negative. However, a more constructive and empathetic approach involves adopting a growth mindset—focusing not on blame but on opportunities for improvement and support. 

Shifting the Perspective 

The first step in adopting a growth mindset is shifting the narrative from "What went wrong?" to "How can we improve?" This question invites constructive dialogue and opens the door to collaborative problem-solving. It also helps in building a more open, trustful relationship between the adjuster and the injured worker. 

The Power of Curious Questions 

Curiosity is the cornerstone of a growth mindset. Adjusters should be trained to ask open-ended questions that invite the worker to share their thoughts and feelings. For instance, instead of asking, "Why didn't you follow the safety guidelines?" an adjuster with a growth mindset might say, "What support do you think would help you the most right now?" This kind of question not only helps in gathering useful information but also makes the injured worker feel valued and heard. 

The Benefits of a Growth-Oriented Approach 

A growth-oriented approach has several advantages. For one, it defuses tension and reduces the likelihood of confrontational encounters. Workers are more likely to be cooperative and forthcoming when they feel they're being listened to rather than blamed. Secondly, it allows for more effective claim resolutions, as both parties are focused on constructive outcomes. Lastly, it fosters a culture of continuous improvement within the organization, as lessons learned from each case can be applied to future instances. 

Empowerment Through Support 

By asking what support the worker needs, the adjuster is essentially empowering them to take an active role in their recovery process. This not only speeds up recovery but also leads to higher levels of satisfaction with the claims process. Empowered workers are more likely to return to work faster and are less likely to harbor resentment against their employers, leading to a more harmonious work environment. 

  1. Guidance, Not Criticism: Workers' compensation is a complex and often emotionally fraught process. The injured worker is dealing with physical pain, stress, and potentially, job insecurity. Within this delicate context, the role of the claims adjuster should be one of a guide, not a critic. Providing guidance rather than criticism creates an environment where workers feel supported, ultimately leading to better outcomes for everyone involved. 

The Psychological Toll of Criticism 

Being subjected to scrutiny or criticism, especially when already vulnerable due to an injury, can be mentally and emotionally draining for a worker. This form of interaction can create a barrier of defensiveness and mistrust, hindering open communication and complicating the claims process. 

The Necessity for Empathetic Guidance 

Guidance, in contrast, is founded on empathy and understanding. An adjuster operating from this standpoint aims to navigate the worker through the maze of workers' compensation, clarifying ambiguities and offering supportive solutions. The tone is one of collaboration, with the adjuster acting as a helpful resource rather than an interrogative authority. 

How to Offer Guidance Effectively 

Effective guidance comes from a place of genuine curiosity and a desire to understand the worker's experience. Open-ended questions and active listening are key elements here. The adjuster should avoid leading questions that put the worker on the defensive and instead focus on inquiries that help illuminate the worker's needs and concerns, such as, "Can you help me understand what you're going through so we can figure out the best next steps?" 

Building a Supportive Atmosphere 

The atmosphere during the claims process should be one of mutual respect and shared goals. The worker should feel that their needs and well-being are a priority, and that they are being actively guided through a complicated, often intimidating, process. This feeling of being supported can significantly affect the worker's mental and emotional state, positively influencing their recovery and their relationship with their employer. 

Ask for Feedback on Delivery 

  1. Post-Interaction Surveys: While it's crucial to manage workers' compensation claims effectively, it's equally important to understand how the process feels from the perspective of the injured worker. Post-interaction surveys can serve as a valuable tool for gauging the quality of the worker's experience and offer insights into areas for improvement. 

A Mechanism for Continuous Improvement 

Post-interaction surveys act as a feedback loop that encourages continuous improvement in the organization's claims management process. They enable the company to understand what they're doing well and where there may be room for improvement, directly from the people who've gone through the experience. 

Crafting Effective Questions 

The questions in a post-interaction survey should be designed to elicit honest and constructive feedback. For instance, instead of asking leading questions like, "Were you satisfied with our service?", consider more open-ended questions like, "Did you feel heard during your claim process?" or "Is there anything you wish had been done differently?" These kinds of questions invite candid responses and provide a more nuanced understanding of the worker's experience. 

The Value of Anonymity 

In order for workers to feel comfortable providing candid feedback, it's important that the survey is anonymous. Knowing that their responses won't impact their claims or work status can encourage workers to be more open, leading to more reliable and actionable feedback. 

Analyzing and Implementing Feedback 

Collecting feedback is just the first step; what really counts is how the organization uses it. Leadership and management should regularly review survey responses to identify patterns or trends. For example, if multiple workers report feeling unheard or undervalued, that could signal a need for adjuster training in active listening or empathy skills. 

  1. Adjuster Training: Once post-interaction surveys have been collected and analyzed, the next logical step is to convert this valuable data into actionable insights. One of the most effective ways to do this is through adjuster training programs tailored to address the specific areas of concern raised by injured workers. 

The Feedback-Training Loop 

Think of feedback and training as a virtuous cycle: Feedback identifies gaps in service delivery, and training fills those gaps. This continuous loop allows organizations to evolve and adapt to the needs of their workforce, creating a more effective and empathetic claims process over time. 

Tailoring Training Modules 

Generic training modules are less likely to bring about the needed changes. Therefore, the feedback should be used to create targeted training that focuses on specific areas like communication skills, empathy, active listening, or conflict resolution. For example, if workers commonly report feeling unheard, a training module on active listening techniques might be developed. 

Real-World Scenarios 

Training becomes more relatable and effective when it includes real-world scenarios that adjusters might encounter in their roles. These scenarios, ideally derived from the feedback, can help adjusters practice new skills in a controlled environment before applying them in actual interactions with workers. 

Evaluating Training Effectiveness 

To ensure that the training is achieving its intended outcomes, it's crucial to incorporate assessment methods. This could be through role-playing exercises, written tests, or even another round of feedback collection specifically aimed at gauging the effectiveness of recent training initiatives. 

Continuous Improvement 

Adjuster training should not be a one-time event but an ongoing process. Regularly updating training modules to reflect new feedback keeps the training relevant and ensures that adjusters' skills are continually honed. 

Measure Psychological Safety 

  1. Regular Surveys: Psychological safety plays a significant role in how injured workers experience the claims process. Ensuring that they feel safe, heard, and supported can have a profound impact on their recovery and overall well-being. One of the most straightforward ways to assess the level of psychological safety within your organization is through regular employee engagement surveys. 

Why Psychological Safety Matters 

Before diving into the specifics of surveying, it's essential to underscore why psychological safety is so important. In a psychologically safe environment, workers are more likely to report injuries promptly, cooperate during the claims process, and return to work more quickly. They are also less likely to feel alienated, anxious, or dissatisfied with their workplace, which fosters a healthier organizational culture. 

Incorporating Relevant Questions 

To gauge the level of psychological safety, organizations can incorporate specific questions into their regular employee engagement surveys. Questions could include:  

- "Do you feel comfortable speaking openly about work-related injuries?" 

- "Do you feel that your concerns about workplace safety are taken seriously?" 

- "How supported do you feel during the workers' compensation process?" 

These targeted questions can provide a clearer picture of the organization's psychological safety landscape and pinpoint areas needing improvement. 

The Importance of Anonymity 

As with post-interaction surveys, ensuring anonymity can encourage more honest and open responses. Employees should feel confident that their feedback will not be used against them in any way, thus providing a clearer and more accurate representation of psychological safety levels within the organization. 

Data Analysis and Action Planning 

Once the survey data is collected, the next step is to analyze the results to identify trends and areas for improvement. Organizations can then create an action plan to address any issues raised, whether that means adjusting current practices, implementing new policies, or providing additional training for adjusters and other stakeholders. 

Regularity and Consistency 

Measuring psychological safety should be an ongoing effort, not a one-time snapshot. By incorporating questions into regular employee engagement surveys, organizations can track progress over time, allowing for ongoing adjustments and refinements to strategies and training programs. 

  1. Team Meetings: Beyond surveys, another critical method for measuring psychological safety within the claims process is regular check-ins during team meetings or one-on-ones between adjusters and their supervisors. These in-person interactions provide a nuanced, real-time snapshot of the state of psychological safety and offer a platform for immediate dialogue and action. 

The Need for Real-Time Check-ins 

While surveys are useful for capturing quantitative data, they may not fully capture the qualitative aspects of psychological safety. Team meetings and one-on-ones allow for more in-depth discussions, where concerns can be voiced and addressed promptly, fostering a culture of openness and continuous improvement. 

Agenda Items for Discussion 

To ensure that psychological safety remains a priority, it should be a recurring agenda item in team meetings and one-on-ones. Supervisors can ask questions like: 

- "How comfortable do you feel communicating with injured workers?" 

- "Are there any challenges you've faced in maintaining a respectful and empathetic approach?" 

- "Do you have suggestions for how we could improve the psychological safety of our injured workers?" 

Creating a Safe Space 

For these conversations to be effective, they must occur in a 'safe space,' where adjusters feel secure speaking candidly about their experiences and challenges. Supervisors should aim to create an atmosphere of non-judgment, encouraging open dialogue and active listening. 

Actionable Outcomes 

The objective of these meetings should not only be to discuss psychological safety but also to translate these discussions into actionable outcomes. Whether it's a policy change, additional training, or even a simple tweak in day-to-day operations, the focus should always be on continuous improvement. 

Benefits of Regularity 

The more frequently these discussions occur, the more embedded they become in the team's culture. This regularity helps keep psychological safety at the forefront, making it an integral part of the organization's ethos rather than an occasional point of concern. 

The Domino Effect: How Psychological Safety Drives Overall Organizational Well-Being  

Creating a psychologically safe environment in the workers' compensation process isn't just a matter of treating individual cases with care and empathy. Its implications go far beyond the claims process, positively impacting the broader work environment and contributing to a culture of openness, engagement, and well-being. 

Worker Engagement and Proactive Participation 

When adjusters create a psychologically safe environment, injured workers are more likely to actively participate in their recovery and return-to-work process. They'll be more inclined to share details about their injuries, comply with medical advice, and engage in constructive dialogue about their rehabilitation. This proactive engagement often speeds up the recovery time and reduces the emotional stress associated with work-related injuries. 

Enhancing Organizational Productivity 

The benefits of psychological safety extend to the productivity of the entire organization. When workers feel supported during difficult times, it fosters a sense of loyalty and engagement that can translate into higher productivity levels. Employees who feel psychologically safe are also more likely to contribute ideas for improvement, making the work environment more innovative and adaptive. 

Positive Ripple Effects on Team Dynamics 

Psychological safety doesn't just affect the injured worker and the adjuster; it sets a tone for the entire team. When team members see that the organization handles injuries with care, empathy, and respect, it can significantly boost morale. This positive atmosphere, in turn, can lead to better collaboration, reduced turnover, and improved job satisfaction. 

Reducing Financial Strain 

A psychologically safe environment also has financial implications for the organization. Faster recoveries and quicker return-to-work times mean less lost productivity and reduced claims costs. In addition, a positive work environment can decrease turnover rates, reducing the costs associated with hiring and training new employees. 

In the grand tapestry of a worker's life, experiencing a workplace injury is a disruptive thread that can fray not only physical well-being but also emotional equilibrium. While workers' compensation attends to the tangible aspects of recovery, we've journeyed through the often-overlooked arena of psychological safety—a space that adjusters, as frontline communicators, can truly influence. Armed with empathy, strategic communication, and a collaborative spirit, adjusters can metamorphose a potentially contentious experience into an empowering journey of recovery. By instituting training programs, encouraging open dialogues, and regularly measuring psychological safety, organizations don't just ensure the welfare of their injured employees—they pave the way for a work culture rich in trust, engagement, and unwavering performance. It's not just about bouncing back; it's about elevating each individual to bounce forward, stronger and more resilient than before. 

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    About The Author

    • Claire Muselman

      Meet Dr. Claire C. Muselman, the Chief Operating Officer at, where she blends her vast academic insight and professional innovation with a uniquely positive energy. As the President of DCM, Dr. Muselman is renowned for her dynamic approach that reshapes and energizes the workers' compensation industry. Dr. Muselman's academic credentials are as remarkable as her professional achievements. Holding a Doctor of Education in Organizational Leadership from Grand Canyon University, she specializes in employee engagement, human behavior, and the science of leadership. Her diverse background in educational leadership, public policy, political science, and dance epitomizes a multifaceted approach to leadership and learning. At Drake University, Dr. Muselman excels as an Assistant Professor of Practice and Co-Director of the Master of Science in Leadership Program. Her passion for teaching and commitment to innovative pedagogy demonstrate her dedication to cultivating future leaders in management, leadership, and business strategy. In the industry, Dr. Muselman actively contributes as an Ambassador for the Alliance of Women in Workers’ Compensation and plays key roles in organizations such as Kids Chance of Iowa, WorkCompBlitz, and the Claims and Litigation Management Alliance, underscoring her leadership and advocacy in workers’ compensation. A highly sought-after speaker, Dr. Muselman inspires professionals with her engaging talks on leadership, self-development, and risk management. Her philosophy of empathetic and emotionally intelligent leadership is at the heart of her message, encouraging innovation and progressive change in the industry. "Empowerment is key to progress. By nurturing today's professionals with empathy and intelligence, we're crafting tomorrow's leaders." - Dr. Claire C. Muselman

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