941. Safety rules and regulations
(a) Safe place of employment; installation of safety devices and safeguards. Every employer shall furnish and maintain employment and places of employment which shall be reasonably safe for his employees in all employments covered by this Act and shall install, furnish, maintain, and use such devices and safeguards with particular reference to equipment used by and working conditions established by such employers as the Secretary may determine by regulation or order to be reasonably necessary to protect the life, health, and safety of such employees, and to render safe such employment and places of employment, and to prevent injury to his employees. However, the Secretary may not make determinations by regulation or order under this section as to matters within the scope of title 52 of the Revised Statutes and Acts supplementary or amendatory thereto, the Act of June 15, 1917 (ch. 30, 40 Stat. 220), as amended or section 4(e) of the Act of August 7, 1953 (ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462), as amended [43 USC 1333(e)].
(b) Studies and investigations by the Secretary. The Secretary, in enforcing and administering the provisions of this section, is authorized in addition to such other powers and duties as are conferred upon him
(1) to make studies and investigations with respect to safety provisions and the causes and prevention of injuries in employments covered by this Act, and in making such studies and investigations to cooperate with any agency of the United States or with any State agency engaged in similar work;
(2) to utilize the services of any agency of the United States or any State agency engaged in similar work (with the consent of such agency) in connection with the administration of this section;
(3) to promote uniformity in safety standards in employments covered by this Act through cooperative action with any agency of the United States or with any State agency engaged in similar work;
(4) to provide for the establishment and supervision of programs for the education and training of employers and employees in the recognition, avoidance, and prevention of unsafe working conditions in employments covered by this Act, and to consult with and advise employers as to the best means of preventing injuries;
(5) to hold such hearings, issue such orders, and make such decisions, based upon findings of fact, as are deemed to be necessary to enforce the provisions of this section, and for such purposes the Secretary and the district courts shall have the authority and jurisdiction provided by section 5 of the Act of June 30, 1936 (ch. 881, 49 Stat. 2036), as amended [41 USC 39], and the Secretary shall be represented in any court proceedings as provided in the Act of May 4, 1928 (ch. 502, 45 Stat. 490), as amended [33 USC 921a].
(c) Inspection of places and practices of employment. The Secretary or his authorized representative may inspect such places of employment, question such employees, and investigate such conditions, practices, or matters in connection with employment subject to this Act, as he may deem appropriate to determine whether any person has violated any provision of this section, or any rule or regulation issued thereunder, or which may aid in the enforcement of the provisions of this section. No employer or other person shall refuse to admit the Secretary or his authorized representatives to any such place or shall refuse to permit any such inspection.
(d) Requests for advice; variations from safety rules and regulations. Any employer may request the advice of the Secretary or his authorized representative, in complying with the requirements of any rule or regulation adopted to carry out the provisions of this section. In case of practical difficulties or unnecessary hardships, the Secretary in his discretion may grant variations from any such rule or regulation, or particular provisions thereof, and permit the use of other or different devices if he finds that the purpose of the rule or regulation will be observed by the variation and the safety of employees will be equally secured thereby. Any person affected by such rule or regulation, or his agent, may request the Secretary to grant such variation, stating in writing the grounds on which his request is based. Any authorization by the Secretary of a variation shall be in writing, shall describe the conditions under which the variation shall be permitted, and shall be published as provided in section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act (ch. 324, 60 Stat. 237), as amended. A properly indexed record of all variations shall be kept in the office of the Secretary and open to public inspection.
(e) Jurisdiction to restrain violations. The United States district courts, together with the District Court for the Territory of Alaska, shall have jurisdiction for cause shown, in any action brought by the Secretary, represented as provided in the Act of May 4, 1928 (ch. 502, 45 Stat. 490), as amended [33 USC 921a], to restrain violations of this section or of any rule, regulation, or order of the Secretary adopted to carry out the provisions of this section.
(f) Violations and penalties. Any employer who, willfully, violates or fails or refuses to comply with the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, or with any lawful rule, regulation, or order adopted to carry out the provisions of this section, and any employer or other person who willfully interferes with, hinders, or delays the Secretary or his authorized representative in carrying out his duties under subsection (c) of this section by refusing to admit the Secretary or his authorized representative to any place, or to permit the inspection or examination of any employment or place of employment, or who willfully hinders or delays the Secretary or his authorized representative in the performance of his duties in the enforcement of this section, shall be guilty of an offense, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished for each offense by a fine of not less than $ 100 nor more than $ 3,000; and in any case where such employer is a corporation, the officer who willfully permits any such violation to occur shall be guilty of an offense, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished also for each offense by a fine of not less than $ 100 nor more than $ 3,000. The liability hereunder shall not affect any other liability of the employer under this Act.
(g) Inapplicability to certain employments.
(1) The provisions of this section shall not apply in the case of any employment relating to the operations for the exploration, production, or transportation by pipeline of mineral resources upon the navigable waters of the United States, nor under the authority of the Act of August 7, 1953 (ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462) [43 USC 1331 et seq.], nor in the case of any employment in connection with lands (except filled in, made or reclaimed lands) beneath the navigable waters as defined in the Act of May 22, 1953 (ch. 65, 67 Stat. 29) [43 USC 1301 et seq.] nor in the case of any employment for which compensation in case of disability or death is provided for employees under the authority of the Act of May 17, 1928 (ch. 612, 45 Stat. 600), as amended, nor under the authority of the Act of August 16, 1941 (ch. 357, 55 Stat. 622), as amended [42 USC 1651 et seq.].
(2) The provisions of this section, with the exception of paragraph (1) of subsection (b), shall not be applied under the authority of the Act of September 7, 1916 (ch. 458, 39 Stat. 742), as amended.